\ Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute


Malaria Lifecycle Graphic:

  1. Malaria: About Malaria: Biology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/index.html. Accessed 5/23/2018.
  2. Bousema T, Drakeley C. Epidemiology and Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Gametocytes in Relation to Malaria Control and Elimination. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2011;24(2):377-410. doi:10.1128/CMR.00051-10.
  3. Andrews KA, Wesche D, McCarthy J, Möhrle JJ, Tarning J, Phillips L, Kern S, Grasela T. Model-Informed Drug Development for Malaria Therapeutics. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2018 Jan 6;58:567-582. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010715-103429.
  4. "Life cycle of the malaria parasite" from Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. Available at: http://ocw.jhsph.edu/index.cfm/go/imageLib:il.viewImageDetails/resourceID/438DCC50-FFE9-0B64-8515BF619797AA48/browseTopic/Malaria/topicID/16/. Copyright © Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Creative Commons BY-NC-SA. Accessed 5/23/2018.

Tuberculosis Transmission Cycle Graphic:

  1. Malaria: About Malaria: Biology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/index.html. Accessed 5/23/2018.
  2. Paulson, T. Epidemiology: A mortal foe. Nature. 10 October 2013. 502, S2–S3. doi:10.1038/502S2a.
  3. Chapter 2- Transmission and Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/education/corecurr/pdf/chapter2.pdf. Accessed 5/24/2018.
  4. TB Risk Factors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/risk.htm. Accessed 5/24/2018.
  5. Latent TB Infection and TB Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/tbinfectiondisease.htm. Accessed 5/24/2018.
  6. Wayne LGG. Nonreplicating Persistence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Annual Review of Microbiology. October 2001. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.139.
  7. Ong CWM, Elkington PT, Friedland JS. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary Cavitation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2014;190(1):9-18. doi:10.1164/rccm.201311-2106PP.
  8. Bacon J, Alderwick LJ, Allnutt JA, et al. Non-Replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis Elicits a Reduced Infectivity Profile with Corresponding Modifications to the Cell Wall and Extracellular Matrix. Tyagi AK, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87329. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087329.
  9. What is tuberculosis. Khan Academy Web site. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/infectious-diseases/tuberculosis/a/what-is-tuberculosis. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  10. Esmail H, Barry CE, Wilkinson RJ. Understanding latent tuberculosis: the key to improved diagnostic and novel treatment strategies. Drug discovery today. 2012;17(9-10):514-521. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2011.12.013.
  11. Humphries, C. Latency: A sleeping giant. Nature. 10 October 2013. 502, S14–S15. doi:10.1038/502S14a.
  12. Achkar JM, Jenny-Avital ER. Incipient and Subclinical Tuberculosis: Defining Early Disease States in the Context of Host Immune Response. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204(Suppl 4):S1179-S1186. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir451.
  13. Dowdy DW, Basu S, Andrews JR. Is Passive Diagnosis Enough? The Impact of Subclinical Disease on Diagnostic Strategies for Tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2013;187(5):543-551. doi:10.1164/rccm.201207-1217OC.
  14. Knechel NA. Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Critical Care Nurse. 2009;29(2):34-43. doi: 10.4037/ccn2009968.

Intersecting Pathways of Diarrheal Disease Graphic:

  1. Alexander KA, Carzolio M, Goodin D, Vance E. Climate Change is Likely to Worsen the Public Health Threat of Diarrheal Disease in Botswana. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(4):1202-1230.
  2. ETEC and Shigella: Promising new tools in the fight against diarrhea. PATH program websites. http://sites.path.org/cvia/our-disease-targets/etec-and-shigella/. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  3. PATH, BIO Ventures for Global Health. The Case for Investment in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccines. PATH website. March 11. http://www.path.org/publications/files/VAC-etec-investment-rpt.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  4. Leading causes of childhood diarrhea. DefeatDD. http://www.defeatdd.org/cascading-burden/#1. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  5. Diarrhoeal disease. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diarrhoeal-disease. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  6. Food and Waterborne Diarrheal Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effects/food_waterborne.htm. Published December 11, 2014. Accessed May 24, 2018. “Ecosystem” Graphic:
  7. Translational Science Spectrum. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. https://ncats.nih.gov/translation/spectrum. Published May 4, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  8. Gates MRI- Our approach to BCG Revax (poster)
  9. Science Translational Medicine. Science | AAAS. http://www.sciencemag.org/site/marketing/stm/definition.xhtml. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  10. Michael R. Emmert-Buck, “Translational Research: From Biological Discovery to Public Benefit (or Not),” Advances in Biology, vol. 2014, Article ID 278789, 20 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/278789.
  11. Press G. A Very Short History Of Data Science. Forbes Web site. https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2013/05/28/a-very-short-history-of-data-science/2/#702d4107699e. Published October 15, 2014. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  12. Health Care Data Science. Master's in Data Science. http://www.mastersindatascience.org/industry/health-care/. Accessed May 24, 2018.
  13. Learn About Drug and Device Approvals. U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page. https://www.fda.gov/ForPatients/Approvals/default.htm. Accessed May 24, 2018.

Maternal and Newborn Child Health Graphic:

  1. Maternal mortality. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/maternal-mortality Accessed March 18, 2020.